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How to decode merkle/transaction proof that Bitcoin SV software provides?

One can ask Bitcoin SV not to provide a proof that a given transaction was included in a block. E.g.:

➜ bitcoin-cli gettxoutproof '["ea32120687851afe3418ab3642af94a4c69684e4b87f8a529807489e09d74ec5"]'
00008020044b32cb5a9d9c5a4d8df9b7d3db277897cd3326900ffb0200000000000000009c34e7a224a4aab8df6a82bf29710a343e000ec5494348ff1a4cf028e55ec81035a1f85dbc10071870a3284fea2400000f98e8f40fdb92f5359abf62b6a56dc03adf7da95390635c2e5e4fafbbee3f753dc54ed7099e480798528a7fb8e48496c6a494af4236ab1834fe1a8587061232ea86f9873bc1bbb24ff46e666c5370ac4b51ca3f5a0ffd03e0713c7be7612e9f610f245966d85fa863a32038e349aaf1b63ccde8b89b395aa2494fa0540d11cf183ef019baee80e4f38fcf2fe3bc23619e3d6edec65dfd2ab452f186e922492ffb668dbc25e8be0c6050247399209dfdda4934cca52f02c399d0fd6dc97c23b4615d4e9ffb22c3de0b35e8dcecb3aa23007defa4ec8e105af05dc87108ded9dccc3b80e338ba14f4390cc5c775c7fba36590bd460f3601e64b8ab55cae0a71f1224f06f0b18a11596a37a49fab86c2a7764b92f114aacad9853b8bea7f23283076cefc60d6f7f600e8d1e32342e8169e49523917c6b9b8ad7931edff1f876ae7c0a149ee3ea75ba806c441f772cbd7fb326f4b0f13b891a364a7399805749bc38016016d6a64aefe4bc7fe48f4ca8bd6f766edb0fdb183d9ba0df7f58dd280692da7dd94048aab0b5b0ebfc83066e85cc8d2cabb133739b872fb4312db5fad41e6e7d55fb7d9addfd810a561ed49634225cd88d2a04638fdc8efaf0d6044e78bdf09455aab9b4d25a5c60cac2376237b064b10b88081f52d241fff4a2d35b464f504ffdf0000

Proof can be verified using the verifytxoutproof RPC command, but let’s say I would like to verify the proof in a custom application that does not have access to a Bitcoin node.

How can I decode the proof HEX blob? What data is part of it and how can I get block, merkle proof and transaction information from it?

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If transaction hashes only are stored in blocks, then where is OP_RETURN data stored?

An answer to a previous question and the whitepaper both agree that blocks don’t store full transactions, but rather, transaction hashes.

So then, what if I add data in OP_RETURN, say, the text “Hello, world!” Isn’t that a transaction output, or at least contained in an output, and therefore part of a transaction?

If not, or if so and only transaction hashes, not transactions themselves persist, then how does the OP_RETURN data stay on the blockchain?

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Provide examples of multi-sig scripts

What are the possible Bitcoin scripts to create a multi-sig transaction? Please provide the script code with explanations.

I would like to see at least two types of such scripts explained (OP_CHECKMULTISIG and the one with conditional OP_IF statements that Steve Shadders showed at this CoinGeek Seoul presentation). If there are more options, please list them as well.

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To Bitcoin or not

Bitcoin is all good and well and I am also invested in it. My question is what will happen when governments take control of Bitcoin? Look what happened way back on April 5, 1933 when Roosevelt declared all privately owned gold illegal. Will this happen again? If so, then is Bitcoin the alternative?

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What is Miner ID, how it works and what can it be used for?

There has been a lot of discussion going on about Miner ID lately. What is Miner ID and how does it work? Is it optional for miners to use and what would be their incentive for or against it?

Which cool new possibilities does it enable?

Note: Only answers that properly answer questions on BitQ&A will qualify for the bounty. Links to external resources are more than welcome, while answers with links only won’t qualify.

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